关于英语说明文的写作方法

时间:2022-10-16作者:米娜作文网分类:中学作文浏览:1评论:0

  关于英语阐明文的写作办法

  英语阐明文的写作办法都有哪些呢?下面小编整理了关于英语阐明文的写作办法,欢迎咱们参阅!

  关于英语阐明文的写作办法

  就“阐明目标”而言,英语阐明文可分为对“客观具体事物”的阐明和对“片面笼统观念”的阐明两大类,比方:对“LASER(激光)”、“Computer Problem of Year XX(计算机XX年问题)”等等的阐明都是对客观或许具体事物的阐明,而“The Successful Interview(谈成功的面试)”、“How to Write Good English Composition(怎么才干写好英语作文)” 等是对片面笼统观念的阐明。对咱们中学生朋友来说,在汉语阐明文的教育中好像比较偏重前者,即解说客观具体事物的阐明文。但在英语阐明文中,论述和阐明 “片面笼统观念”的阐明文占了很大的比重,其间有些相似汉语中的议论文。可是无论是对“客观具体事物”的阐明仍是对“片面笼统观念”的论述,英语阐明文从结构上看大致可分为三个部分:榜首部分一般是文章的榜首段,提出文章的主题,也便是说,文章想要论述、阐明的主要内容;第二部分是文章的主体,可由若干个阶段组成,对文章的主题进行打开阐明;第三部分是结尾段,对文章的主题作概括总结。从英语阐明文的结构可以看出,要写好英语阐明文的关键在于第二部分怎么对文章主题进行打开阐明。在英语中,常见的用来打开文章主题的办法有下列几种:

  1.罗列法(listing)

  在文章开始时提出需求阐明的东西和观念,然后常用first,second,…and finally加以罗列阐明。罗列法广泛地运用于各类指导性的阐明文之中,下面这篇学生作文便是用罗列法写成的:

  Early Rising

  Early rising (早上) is helpful in more than one way. First, it helps to keep us fit (健康)。 We all need fresh air. But air is never so fresh as early in the morning. Besides, we can do good to our health from doing morning exercise (做早操)。

  Secondly, early rising helps us in our studies. We learn more quickly in the morning, and find it easier to remember what we learn in the morning.

  Thirdly, early rising enables (使可以) us to plan the work of the day. We cannot work well without a good plan. Just as the plan for the year should be made in the spring, so the plan for the day should be made in the morning.

  Fourthly, early rising gives us enough time to get ready for our work, such as to wash our faces and hands and eat our breakfast properly.

  Late risers may find it very difficult to form the habit of early rising. They ought to make special efforts to do so. As the English proverb says,“Early to bed and early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.”

  罗列法常常用下列句式打开阶段,咱们可以留意仿照学习:

  There are several good reasons why we should learn a foreign language. First of all, …Secondly, …And finally, …

  We should try our best to plant more trees for several good reasons First of all, …Secondly, …And finally,

  有必要指出的是,有时罗列法并不一定有清晰的first, second…等词,但文章仍是以罗列论据打开的。

  2.举例法(examples)

  举例法是用具体的比方来阐明咱们要表达的意思,常用for example, for instance, still another example is…等词语引出。下面这篇学生作文便是用举例法写成的:

  Recreation

  It is impossible to keep in good health unless we take enough recreation (文娱)。 The mind, too, needs change to make it fresh and vigorous (有生机的) There is much truth in the old saying, All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.“

  There are many games which boys and girls can play after their school work is done, for instance, football, tennis, and kite-flying. Other examples of recreation are boating, fishing, gardening, cycling, walking, chess-playing, and reading. Persons who sit much at their business should take a kind of recreation that will supply their muscles (肌肉) with exercise. Those who spend most of their time in the open air and do manual work (体力活) should adopt (采用) reading or some other quiet form of recreation.

  Cycling is said to be an important means of recreation, but many persons foolishly tire out themselves by cycling too much. The same may be said in regard to football. Tennis is a pleasant form of recreation. Many persons take great delight in boating. Fishing requires much patience, and there is much danger of taking cold by sitting still on a cold day too long. A good brisk (轻松) walk is one of the finest forms of exercise. For persons engaged in outdoor labor, chess-playing is another excellent form of recreation.

  可以看出,举例法和罗列法有时可以结合运用:即用罗列法来列出比方,用比方充分罗列的阐明。

  3.比较法(comparison and contrast)

  比较法是对两个目标进行比较,然后进行阐明的写作办法。比较法又可细分为比较相同点(comparison)和比较不同点(contrast)两种办法,比方:

  From Paragraph to Essay

  Although they are different in length (长度), the paragraph and the essay are quite similar in structure (结构)。 For example, the paragraph starts with either a topic sentence (主题句) or a topic introducer followed by a topic sentence. In the essay, the first paragraph sets up the topic focus (主题地点) Next, the sentences in the body of a paragraph develop the topic sentence. Similarly, the body of an essay consists of a number of paragraphs that discuss and support the ideas given in the introductory (引导的) paragraph. Finally, a concluding sentence (完毕句) ——whether a restatement, conclusion, or observation——ends the paragraph. The essay, too, has a concluding paragraph which ends the essay logically and satisfactorily. Although there are some exceptions (破例), most well written expository (阐明文的) paragraphs and essays are similar in structure.

  可以看出,在比较相同点的时分,常用到similarly,also,too,in the same case,in spite of the difference等这样的词语。

  European Football and American Football

  Although European football is the parent of American football, the two games show several major differences. European football, sometimes called association football or soccer, is played in 80 countries, making it the most widely played sport in the world. American football, on the other hand, is popular only in North America (the United States and Canada)。 Soccer is played by eleven players with a round ball. Football, also played by eleven players in somewhat different positions (方位) on the field, is played with an elongated (拉长的) round ball. Soccer has little body contact (触摸) between players and therefore needs no special protective equipment. Football, in which players make the greatest use of body contact to stop a running ball-carrier and his teammates, needs special protective equipment. In soccer, the ball is advanced toward the goal by kicking it or by butting (顶) it with the head. In American football, on the other hand, the ball is passed from hand to hand or carried in the hands across the opponent's (对手) goal. These are just a few of the features which distinguish (差异) association and American

弗洛伊德肖像画习作,证监会回应黄晓明,深圳富士康跳楼事件,11年前那位春运母亲找到了,亚太经合组织2014,甬温线特别重大铁路交通事故,卢旺达种族清洗事件,超级钢,地震地图,越南外交部,孔庆东事件,新添5A级景区,沈阳李晨阳,崇尚英雄精忠报国,马震,倪发科新动态,歼20首飞10周年,上海复旦大学投毒事件,9月假期,邓文迪离婚原因,核危机,叶良辰是谁,山东省司法厅厅长被免职,马云微博,广东首例境外输入关联本地病例,俞露微博,丹东阿里郎风采展示,伊朗人质事件,达到,伦敦奥运会乒乓球男团决赛
football.

  这是一篇用比较不同点的办法写的阐明文。从文章中可以看出:however,on the other hand,in contrast,but,nevertheless等表明转机的词语常用来引导对不同点的比较。

  4.界说法(definition)

  界说法也是英语阐明文中常用的写作办法,特别是在对具体事物概念进行阐明时常常运用。界说法的基本要素是界说句。英语中常见界说句的'形式是:

  被界说目标is所属类别+限制性定语

  可以看出,界说句中限制性定语越具体,界说就越准确,比方:

  A bat is a small mouse-like animal that flies at night and feeds on(以……为食物)fruit and insects but is not a bird.

  其实,在英—英词典中,对英语单词的英文解说便是界说法的典型比方。比方,看看Longman词典对student和teacher的界说是很有意思的:A student is a person who is studying at a place of education or training. A teacher is a person who gives knowledge or skill to sb. as a profession (专业)。

  5.次序法(sequence of time, space and process)

  次序法是指按时刻、空间或进程的次序进行阐明的一种写作办法。比方依照时刻次序介绍一个科学家的生平,用空间次序论述逐步开发西部的重要意义,用进程次序法解说葡萄酒的生产进程等等。

  下面这篇学生作文便是用次序法写成的:

  Coal

  Coal underwent (饱尝) many changes before it became the bright,

老人认保姆干女儿,长沙女生乘网约车后失联 滴滴回应,浙江叔侄冤案,长征五号今日发射,外交部召见美国大使,田中真纪子,中纪委魏健,七普,2008感动中国,一地两检,致幻剂,俄航迫降视频曝光,包贝尔婚礼柳岩,周亭羽,世俱杯恒大赛程,延安打人女城管,葛天微博,2019全球亿万富豪榜,牛志忠,广宗杀人案,长征六号运载火箭,俄罗斯70周年阅兵,北京大风砸死人,王功权被抓,柯震东遭抵制,2018天猫双十一,诸城箭口毒气泄露,雅安市长,2014年元旦放假,疯狂国际象棋
brittle (脆的), black substance which we now use. During ancient times (在上古时代), when the earth enjoyed a very warm and wet climate, the land was covered with large forests and big plants. As time went on, the ground changed and began to sink (下沉) a little. These very large numbers of trees and vegetables received a deposit (沉积) of sand and clay. This layer of sand and clay pressed upon the layer beneath and prevented it from contact with air. These trees and plants received the pres sure and changed its appearance.

  Generations after generations (几世纪后), as the ground kept gradually sinking, another layer of sand and clay was again deposited (积累) above the layers already formed. A great pressure was thus exerted (效果) and the peat (泥煤) was changed into the black and brittle substance which is known as coal.

  Coal is a kind of

天降护栏砸死女子,方祎铭,9家酒店取消星级,尼日利亚局势,fdd牌照,sbs电视台,银保监会调查奔驰,北京恐怖袭击,左耳 票房,瘫痪是什么意思,文莱40亿美金,水母论坛,台湾选票,安徽家长网上学校,雷阳事件,俄罗斯驻华大使馆微博,沈阳大力哥,955工作制,中国反导试验,里约奥运会开幕式时间,2018高考语文作文,麻栗坡烈士陵园,北京地铁涨价,爱新觉罗 恒馨,回到南宋当名将,北京地铁调价,王林案,李廷钊,柏林突发枪击案,锦湖轮胎 价格表,f22p
mineral which is formed by nature as above stated. It is an important industrial material and is chiefly used as fuel. It is very valuable in the industrial world. The place where coal deposit is called a coal mine (煤矿)。 In China, coal mines are largely found in the north-west part of the country. Shanxi is a famous province for producing coal. It has the most coal of China.

  6.分类法(classification)

  分类法是将写作目标进行分类阐明的一种写作办法。比方:闻名的英国哲学家弗朗西斯·培根(Francis Bacon)在其妇孺皆知的《谈读书》(Of Studies)一文中就用到了分类法:

  Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested, that is, some books are to be read only in parts, others to be read, but not curiously, and some few to be read wholly, and with diligence and attention. Some books also may be read by deputy, and extracts made of them by others; but that would be only in the less important arguments, and the meaner sort of books…

  参阅译文:书有可浅尝者,有可吞食者,少量则须咀嚼消化。换言之,有只须读其部分者,有只须大体涉猎者,少量则须全读,读时须聚精会神,孜孜不倦。书亦可请人代读,取其所需摘要,但只限体裁较次或价值不高者……

  ——转摘自《英汉翻译教程》(张培基等)

  可见,假如可以根据具体情况,选用适宜的写作办法,就可为文章增加无量的魅力。

  除了上述说到的6种打开英语阐明文主题的写作办法之外,还有因果法、概括法等其他办法。但相比之下,关于中学生来说,上述6种办法是首要值得把握的。别的有必要指出的是:在一篇文章中往往是以一种写作办法为主,一起辅以其他写作办法。有时,甚至会几种写作办法混用而不分主次。因而,有必要根据具体情况,选用适宜的打开主题的写作办法,才干写出优异的英语阐明文。

文章版权声明:除非注明,否则均为米娜作文网原创文章,转载或复制请以超链接形式并注明出处。
相关推荐

猜你喜欢